Volume 2
Go To Section:

Volume 2


Muhammad Ahmed Abdullah
Published online: 25 July 2023

We address the critical issue of road traffic accidents (RTAs) that significantly impact global mortality and morbidity. Annually, RTAs cause nearly 1.35 million deaths worldwide, making them one of the top ten leading causes of death, exceeding rates of tuberculosis and diarrheal diseases. In Pakistan, the situation is particularly dire due to its vast population and extensive road network. The increasing number of vehicles combined with rapid urbanization intensifies RTA occurrences. Inadequate enforcement of traffic laws leads to high-risk driving behaviors. Most victims are young adults, with motorcyclists, cyclists, and pedestrians being the most vulnerable groups. This highlights a pressing need for comprehensive reforms to enhance road safety practices, improve emergency response systems, and implement effective public health education to mitigate the devastating impact of RTAs.


Saima Pervaiz
Published online: 29 July 2023

The increasing incidence of allergic diseases requires effective curative strategies for their alleviation. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is a causal treatment technique instead of a symptomatic treatment technique for allergies. At present, AIT is being offered utilizing immunization response modifiers (IRMs) or adjuvants. The adjuvant helps in vigorous inaugral as well as long-term IR (immune response), thus enhancing the efficacy of AIT. The successful development of novel additives requires complete knowledge regarding the underdevelopment of novel and conservative additives. Hence, this review describes the applications of nanotechnology in allergic disorders, namely, allergies and asthma. The development of vaccines based on nanoparticles (NPs) is an important strategy for AIT because of their innate physicochemical characteristics, production ease and capacity to incite inherent immunity.

Original Articles

Adnan Yonas
Published online: 26 September 2023

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have significant impacts on global public health, necessitating a deep understanding of their transmission dynamics and risk factors. Given the high prevalence in Pakistan and the critical role of healthcare education, this study aimed to assess medical students’ knowledge of transmission risk factors and common myths and misconceptions about HBV and HCV. An exploratory study was conducted in May 2022 at Rai Medical College, Sargodha, Pakistan. A total of 376 undergraduate medical students were recruited using a convenient sampling technique. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires to assess their knowledge of HBV and HCV transmission risk factors and associated myths and misconceptions. The data were analyzed for frequencies and percentages with SPSS version 25.00. The majority of students accurately identified traditional transmission pathways for HBV, with 78.72% recognizing transmission during pregnancy and 73.14% during delivery. However, knowledge about nontraditional transmission routes and household practices was less robust, with only 60.64% acknowledging the risks of sharing nail cutters. For HCV, knowledge was generally lower, with 62.77% recognizing the risk associated with tattooing. Misconceptions were also prevalent; for instance, 53.99% of students mistakenly believed that HBV could be transmitted through the home care of patients. This study highlights significant knowledge gaps and pervasive misconceptions among medical students regarding HBV and HCV transmission. Despite a good grasp of traditional risk factors, the widespread misunderstanding of nonbloodborne transmission routes underscores the urgent need for enhanced educational interventions. The findings suggest that targeted improvements in curriculum design could better equip future healthcare providers to combat hepatitis effectively.

Sufyan Ahmad
Published online: 04 October 2023

Dental caries significantly impact global health, particularly in Pakistan, where the prevalence is notably high. This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of mobile teledentistry in Islamabad and Rawalpindi by employing the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) as a benchmark. This cross-sectional validation study was conducted from July to September 2022 in nine private dental clinics involving 460 participants proficient in basic Android smartphone functions. The diagnostic procedure comprised initial in-person evaluations by dentists, subsequent remote assessments using images captured by smartphones based on verbal instructions, and validations by a third independent dentist. Statistical analyses were performed using sensitivity, specificity, Matthew’s correlation coefficient, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Teledentistry achieved a specificity of 89% and a sensitivity of 70%. The positive and negative predictive values were 74.6% and 86%, respectively. The ROC curve analysis, with an area under the curve greater than 0.7, confirmed the high diagnostic efficacy of the method. The Cohen’s kappa statistic reached 0.814, demonstrating substantial interrater reliability, while the diagnostic odds ratio was 18, indicating strong discriminative power. This study confirmed that teledentistry, enabled by the use of smartphone cameras, serves as a reliable method for detecting dental caries, with efficacy comparable to that of conventional clinical examination methods. It significantly extends dental care accessibility, particularly in geographically remote or economically underserved regions, effectively mitigating the logistical challenges associated with traditional dental visits. The findings support the broader implementation of teledentistry, highlighting its potential to enhance mass screening efforts, improve oral health outcomes, and alleviate pressures on healthcare systems across diverse demographic landscapes.

Alamzeb Jadoon
Published online: 15 November 2023

Globally, blood donations carry the risk of transmitting infectious diseases if not properly screened, necessitating rigorous protocols to detect transfusion-transmitted infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV. Our study focused on assessing the frequencies of HBV, HCV, and HIV, as well as donor awareness of these infections in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This observational study, which was conducted over two months at Nowshera Medical College, involved 100 volunteer blood donors and used a close-ended questionnaire to gather data on both diagnostic results and awareness. The results indicated that HBV was present in 4% of the donors, HCV was present in 2%, and no HIV was detected. Awareness levels varied, with 52% of donors aware of HBV transmission through blood transfusions, 54% recognizing the lack of a vaccine for HCV, and 74% having a greater awareness of HIV affecting the immune system. This study highlights significant gaps in donor knowledge, especially regarding transmission and prevention. These findings underscore the need for enhanced screening and donor education to reduce the risk of infections from blood transfusions. Improved public health strategies and policies are necessary to ensure the safety of the blood supply, ultimately improving health outcomes in the region. This study advocates for targeted interventions that can significantly mitigate transfusion-related risks and foster a safer blood donation environment.

Moazzam Rasheed
Published online: 18 November 2023

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the leading global cause of disability and pose a significant public health issue, particularly among professional drivers who are prone to such conditions due to prolonged sitting, poor posture, and exposure to whole-body vibrations. The objectives of this study are to assess the demographic, general, lifestyle, and wellness profiles of professional drivers, gauge their work environment characteristics, and measure the proportion of musculoskeletal symptoms using the modified Nordic questionnaire. This descriptive study collected data from 67 professional drivers at major bus stands in Lahore using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations. The results revealed that the drivers, predominantly middle-aged (average age 39.72 ± 9.53 years) and married (95.52%), reported limited formal education (average 7.56 ± 3.91 years). Lifestyle assessments indicated high rates of smoking (61.19%) and frequent consumption of soft drinks (88.06%). In their work environment, most drivers (68.66%) worked daytime shifts, and a significant proportion (56.72%) experienced vibration exposure. The most frequently reported musculoskeletal symptoms were in the lower back (58.21% in the past 12 months, 43.28% in the past 7 days) and hips/thighs (61.19% in the past 12 months), impacting their ability to work. These findings highlight the critical need for targeted ergonomic and lifestyle interventions to improve the occupational health and safety of drivers, potentially reducing musculoskeletal discomfort and enhancing overall well-being and productivity.

Muhammad Ayaz Ul Haq Chatta
Published online: 23 December 2023

Coccydynia, a condition characterized by pain in the tailbone region, is frequently exacerbated by childbirth and particularly affects women due to increased pelvic stress and changes in posture during and following delivery. The condition, which resembles a cuckoo’s beak in shape, disproportionately affects females and those with obesity and can arise from various causes, such as trauma, infections, and degenerative diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of coccydynia among postpartum women in Lahore, Pakistan, and to provide epidemiological data to better inform clinical practices and patient education for managing this debilitating condition. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August 2023 involving 163 postpartum women aged between 20 and 40 years who were recruited from five private hospitals in Lahore using nonprobability convenience sampling. Participants underwent clinical examinations and were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that incorporated historical health data and the Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) to assess coccygeal pain intensity. Clinical examination revealed that 88.34% of the participants were diagnosed with coccydynia, confirming the prevalence of this condition among the sample. The mean age of the participants was 25.89 ± 4.33 years. The average body mass index (BMI) was 22.46 ± 4.44, indicating a predominantly normal weight group. Common symptoms included pain worsening after prolonged sitting, reported by 85.89% of participants, and significant tenderness during tailbone palpation, reported by 82.82%. The prevalence of coccydynia in postpartum women highlights the need for focused attention to this condition in clinical practice. The findings emphasize the importance of targeted preventative measures and treatment strategies, specifically for postpartum women, to mitigate the impact of coccydynia. Further research is recommended to explore broader preventative strategies and refine treatment protocols to ensure better care for affected women.